Emm negative rare blood group found in rajkot man 11th such case worldwide – A 65-year-old Rajkot man was shocking when he couldn’t locate blood for a 2020 heart operation that matched his blood group. His known blood type was AB positive, the universal acceptor, which added to the surprise. Eventually, after a long search, the first “EMM negative blood case” in India—the 11th such case worldwide—was found.

Introduction

Ripal Shah, Snehal Senjaliya, and Sanmukh Joshi, among others, published the article “Anti Emm, a rare specificity to the high incidence antigen Emm in an Indian patient defining the new blood group system EMM (ISBT042)” in the Asian Journal of Transfusion Science. When matching blood could not  found at the blood banks in Rajkot, the patient arrived in Ahmedabad with the same outcome, according to Dr. Ripal Shah, director of the Prathama Blood Bank. He needs it for a procedure involving a coronary artery bypass graft. An antibody in the blood was responding in both the saline and antiglobulin phases. However, the blood of even his offspring did not match his.

The blood samples were ultimately transport to a laboratory in the US after sent to Surat for enhance examination. According to the findings, the blood lacked the EMM phenotype. “Almost all human red blood cells (RBC) contain it. It was, therefore, challenging to compare with any available samples in its absence. Since the patient had no prior history of transfusions, it occurred naturally. Only his brother in his family has a blood type that is similar but not identical, according to Dr. Shah, who added that if necessary, his brother might have given him blood. But the patient passed away due to further health issues.

According to the study, “the case was crucial in recognizing Emm as a new blood group system, assigned the symbol ISBT042.”

10 individuals have the uncommon blood type.

10 individuals have the uncommon blood type.

There have only been nine individuals with this very uncommon blood type. But a 65-year-old guy from Rajkot, Gujarat, has been found to have blood above class.

How did medical professionals spot the man’s uncommon blood group?

Following a heart attack, the 65-year-old patient needed blood for heart surgery while receiving care in Ahmedabad.

Sanmukh Joshi, a physician at the Samarpan Blood Donation Centre in Surat. Claimed that the samples were transfer to the Surat blood donation center when his blood type could not be identify at the Prathama Laboratory in Ahmedabad.

After analysis, it was determine that the sample did not belong to any particular group. And the older man’s blood samples and those of his family were sent to America for testing.

The older man’s blood type was later discovered to be the first instance of the rarest blood group in India and the tenth in the world. The International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has designated it as EMM negative since is no EMM present in the blood.

EMM-negative uncommon blood type detected in a rajkot man is the eleventh such occurrence worldwide, according to rajkotupdates.news.

Only 10 known examples of the Emm-negative blood group had been documenting globally before this investigation, making it an exceptionally uncommon blood type. The 11th case of the Emm-negative blood type, discover in a patient who was 32 years old, is presenting here. This article analyzes the issue thoroughly, discusses the clinical ramifications of this uncommon blood type. And contrasts the current case with the 10 previously reported cases. The study aims to further knowledge of the emm negative blood type and offer recommendations for how to treat it in transfusion therapy.

Introduction

The presence or lack of antigens on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs) determines a person’s blood type. There are more than 300 blood-type antigens recognized. However, the ABO and Rh systems are the most well-known. The Emm antigen, a part of the Dombrock blood group system (DO), is absent in the emm negative blood group, an uncommon blood type. The ART4 gene encodes the Emm antigen; in transfusion circumstances, its absence can result in immunological responses.

Methods

Methods

A 32-year-old woman who had severe anemia arrived at the hospital. Blood samples is taken to do a complete blood count (CBC), blood type, and antibody screening at a laboratory. Molecular and serological methods of inquiry further verified the Emm-negative blood group.

Results

The patient was identify as having the blood type AB RhD-positive. Initial blood group antigen serological assays revealed a negligible response with anti-Emm. The lack of the Emm antigen, which was brought on by a homozygous mutation in the ART4 gene. Was verified by molecular analysis. Only ten other examples of the Emm-negative blood type were found in the literature, making this the eleventh case to be recording globally.

Samples And Anti-Emm Serologic Reactivity

In EDTA, blood samples remained obtained. Standard tube techniques remained used to identify antibodies and type RBC antigens12. In addition, traditional methods remained used to isolate genomic DNA from fresh and frozen RBC samples (QIAamp, QIAGEN, Inc. Valencia, CA).

In a nutshell, agglutination results from contact between an antibody and red blood cells, and it frequently calls for the employment of a secondary antihuman globulin reagent. Therefore, red cells with known morphologies and antibody-containing serum or plasma are centrifuged, incubated at 37 °C, and checked for agglutination about the indirect antiglobulin test.

After incubating the cells, they are washed in phosphate-buffered saline to eliminate any remaining immunoglobulins. Antihuman globulin remains added, and the mixture remains centrifuged before being checked for agglutination. Before incubation, a low ionic strength solution (LISS) or polyethylene glycol (PEG) remains added to improve the interaction between red cell antigens with antibodies in vitro. In addition to dithiothreitol (DTT), treating the test cells with proteolytic enzymes like papain or trypsin can remain used to determine the precise antibody target based on known sensitivity or cleavage patterns of the red cell protein. Its method can remain used to improve antibody-antigen responses.

Gujarat Is The Site Of The Discovery Of The Country’s First And Tenth-Rarest Blood Group Carriers.

The unusual EMM negative, which cannot remain categorized into the four other blood types (A, B, O, or AB), was found in a 65-year-old Gujarat resident with heart disease. A, B, O, Rh, and Duffy are just a few of the 42 distinct blood systems in the human body. There are four main blood group kinds in general. Additionally, 375 different types of antigens include significant levels of EMM.

Just 10 of these people stand out from other people because they don’t have the EMM high-frequency antigen in their blood.

These incredibly uncommon blood types prevent people from giving and receiving blood from others.

Only nine people in the world have the rarest blood type, but a 65-year-old man from Rajkot, Gujarat, has remained discovered to have it.

According to Sanmukh Joshi, a doctor at the Samarpan Blood Donation Centre in Surat, the patient needed blood for heart surgery and was undergoing treatment in Ahmedabad after a heart attack. However, the samples were only sent to the Surat blood donation facility when the Prathama Laboratory could not determine his blood type.

It eventually determined that the old guy had the first occurrence of the rarest blood group in India and the tenth-rarest blood group worldwide. However, because there is no EMM in the blood, the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT) has classified it as EMM negative.

What Is The Uncommon Blood Type Mm Negative?

EMM-negative blood group members cannot give or take blood from other donors. Consequently, the blood remained strained from him, and the lab analysis was odd and different from the other groups.

The 42nd blood group system is called Emm. Only a few people exhibit the Emm- phenotype due to homozygous PIGG gene loss-of-function mutations. However, anti-Emm antibodies that are naturally present in these people remain frequently found during standard blood type and crossover tests.

Conclusion

rajkotupdates.news:emm-negative-rare-blood-group-found-in-rajkot-man-11th-such-case-worldwide – In transfusion medicine, the rarity of the Emm-negative blood type poses difficulties. If they receive Emm-positive blood, patients with this blood type may acquire anti-Emm antibodies, resulting in hemolytic transfusion reactions (HTRs). Therefore, it is essential to identify Emm-negative blood donors and test for the existence of anti-Emm antibodies in these individuals.

The discovery of the eleventh instance of the Emm-negative blood type advances our knowledge of this uncommon blood type and its therapeutic implications. However, further research and collaboration between blood banks and healthcare organizations are needs to guarantee the proper management of these patients. Including the identification of Emm-negative blood donors and the creation of recommendations for transfusion therapy. Read on to learn more about the 11th incidence of an emm-negative uncommon blood type discovered in a Rajkot man, according to rajkotupdates.news.