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Apa Yang Dimaksud Dengan Modernisasi

Apa Yang Dimaksud Dengan Modernisasi

Modernization is changing something that remains not yet advanced to something more advanced. Modernization remains intended to improve and achieve a more advanced, developed, quality, and prosperous form of society.

According to Soerjono Soekanto, modernization is social changes regarding social norms, social values, the structure of institutions, patterns of social behavior, and all aspects of social life.

Apart from Soerjono Soekanto, others define modernization, which can remain seen from several fields. That person is Anthony Giddens, who wrote about the institutional dimensions of modernity in his book The Consequences of Modernity and divided the dimensions of modernism into four parts: Capitalism, Industrialism, Surveillance Capability, and Military Power.

Causes of Modernization

So now you know what modernization is, right? Well, modernization doesn’t just happen; they really want to exist because humans are creatures who are never satisfied.

If you think about it, why did it use to be so difficult for us to meet someone far away, but now you just press video call, and you can immediately connect with the person you miss. That is the impact of modernization.

Therefore, humans always want to discover something new. So, it is not impossible that there will be new things that will fulfill human satisfaction in the future.

Conditions for Modernization to Occur

The following are the conditions for modernization, according to Soerjono Soekanto.

  1. A scientific way of thinking that has become institutionalized and firmly embedded in the fabric of society.
  2. The state administration system is good and creates a good bureaucracy, too.
  3. A regular and centralized data collection system in a particular institution or body, such as the Indonesia Smart Card, BPJS, Jamsostek, etc.
  4. Creating a favorable climate for modernization, especially in mass media.
  5. High level of organization, especially self-discipline.
  6. Centralization of authority in carrying out social planning that does not prioritize personal interests or certain groups.

Modernization remain also caused by our participation in accepting and looking for something new and wanting acceleration in doing everything.

Characteristics of modernization

Modern societal changes, including social, economic and psychological elements, characterize the characteristics of modernization. The following are several characteristics of modernization summarized from various sources.

  1. Adoption of new technology in aspects of daily life
  2. There is movement from villages to big cities or urbanization
  3. An attitude of accepting new things and being open to change
  4. Individualism means being an individual who is free to choose, determine, and be responsible for his success or failure, or actions
  5. A more advanced mindset, such as awareness of cleanliness and health
  6. Progress in the economic field, such as the development of industry and trade
  7. Progress and faith in science and technology
  8. Differentiation or diversity appears in labor, such as skills, abilities, etc.
  9. Increased mobility as it becomes easier to travel long distances and communicate with people in different places
  10. Have the courage to express opinions or ideas and be able to act democratically.

F actors driving modernization

Modernization remain influenced by several driving factors, namely as follows.

  1. An open society system (open stratification) which allows for social movement, both horizontally and more broadly vertically.
  2. Future-oriented thinking that encourages the creation of new things or discoveries following the demands of an increasingly modern era
  3. Contact with other cultures allows humans to interact with each other and make discoveries
  4. Increased levels of education and awareness of human rights
  5. Better access to education allows people to acquire new knowledge and skills needed to adapt to change
  6. The ease and efficiency of new technology such as the internet, computers, robotics, and so on
  7. The role of government in providing the social, political, and economic conditions necessary for modernization

Impact of Modernization

Have you ever seen people around us who pay attention to themselves? People who are cool and calm don’t pay attention to the symptoms and commotion of this world, that’s rare, right? Nowadays, many people are ambitious about pursuing something, well, these are the people nowadays who are normal in modern society according to Talcott Parson.

Apart from that, Parson also added that today’s society, apart from those included in the statement above, is a society that has remained directed to become divided according to their respective specializations, such as in the field of work.

People now also think objectively and rationally. It definitely has an impact on everything in society, of course.

Positive Impact of Modernization

Modernization causes all elements in society to experience progress and change. Like in this economic system, it’s easier for us to shop and make transactions now with online payments and easy transfers. That is the impact of globalization.

There are also changes in different social systems such as how easy it is for us to interact. Changes in the political field with the current democratic system in place. The field of education is very interesting because learning remains no longer focused on books but on learning videos, infographics, or many other things that help us to learn.

In the field of technology and information, it can remain seen from the development of telecommunications. From the health sector, where medical equipment is already sophisticated, or in the agricultural sector. Which no longer uses buffalo or traditional tools, but rather sophisticated machines. It’s all part of the emergence of modernism.

Negative Impact of Modernization

Apart from the convenience we get from the things described above which help us do everything easily, Modernization also has a negative side!

Like the many crimes that occur due to the reduction in available jobs, global warming occurs due to consuming machines that produce excessive emissions and damage nature. People don’t care about one society or another, which in the end is very individualistic, and also technology-based crimes such as cyber crime exist today because of modernization.

Example of modernization

Modernization can occur in various fields. The following are examples of modernization in the economic, political, social, trade, cultural, transportation and agricultural fields.

1. Examples of Modernization in the Economic Sector

  • Online investment application that has received official certification from the OJK
  • Online donation application
  • Digital wallet for transactions (cashless)
  • Automatic calculation technology like in Excel and so on

2. Examples of Modernization in the Political Field

  • Relations between countries are increasingly developing
  • The formation of international organizations consisting of several countries such as the UN, EU, ASEAN, and so on
  • Establishment of bilateral and multilateral cooperation

3. Examples of Modernization in the Trade Sector

  • Online buying and selling application
  • International trade has become more open
  • Import and export are increasingly free
  • Culinary or food businesses from abroad

4. Examples of Modernization in the Cultural Sector

  • More and more people are mastering foreign languages, even more than one foreign language
  • Healthy lifestyle patterns
  • Changes in people’s behavior from children to adults

5. Examples of Modernization in the Social Sector

  • Ease of reading news and accessing information on digital platforms
  • Can communicate with anyone from any part of the world

6. Examples of Modernization in the Transportation Sector

  • Online transportation is safer, more comfortable and can reach various locations quickly
  • Advanced technology in cars, motorbikes, planes or trains
  • Online ticket booking

7. Examples of Modernization in the Agricultural Sector

  • Tractor engine that can run automatically
  • The harvesting process uses automatic machines
  • Fertilizer that can accelerate plant growth

So, that explains modernization and everything caused by modernization in society. Modernization causes many changes around us, both positive and negative. So, society should respond wisely to everything caused by modernization.

Financial Gig

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